Tuesday, 25 January 2011

US lifts defence sanctions on India: America to benefit from the move in the long run

2011
Syed Akbar
Hyderabad, Jan 25: The US government's decision to lift "sanctions" on Indian defence units will ultimately help the United States, though India gets benefited initially.

The US government lifted its "sanctions" or export curbs on DRDO and ISRO units, which it had imposed in 1998 soon after the Pokhran nuclear tests. The US had earlier eased sanctions against some of the firms, but continued with the curbs on key units. It has now lifted these curbs too.

According to Defence sources, the lifting of curbs or the unilateral sanctions will benefit Indian firms and boost the R & D work including new and existing Space and Defence projects. But it will also boost business opportunities for US firms in the longer run. Incidentally, US sees a flourishing Space and Defence market in India since it is fast developing indigenous technologies in both the areas.

The Indian firms that are now free to import and export equipment and spare parts to the US include Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL), which makes India's missiles and munitions; four subsidiaries of DRDO (Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE), Defense Research and Development Lab (DRDL), Missile Research and Development Complex; and Solid State Physics Laboratory); and four subsidiaries of ISRO (Liquid Propulsion Systems Center (LPSC), Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant (SPROB),
Sriharikota Space Center (SHAR), and Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC).

Though US authorities did not use the terms "sanctions" Indian firms were denied supply of equipment and spares during the last 13 years. India had to develop many spareparts and equipment using the indigenous technology.

ISRO has been urging the US to lift curbs on Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre,  Satish Dhawan Space Centre, and Liquid Propulsion Centre. Three other ISRO units were removed from the "embargo list" four years ago. ISRO had been hopeful of lifting of sanctions since it had collaborated with NASA on the Chandrayaan-1 mission. The collaboration led to the discovery of water molecules on the moon.

The US decision is being seen as a "strategic move" to allow US companies to trade with the Indian organisations. Incidentally, India has proposed FDI in defence sector and the US thought that it was the opportune time to ease trade restrictions with India for bilateral benefit.

Monday, 24 January 2011

WHO may impose ban on TV advts targeting young children with unhealthy food items

2011
Syed Akbar
Hyderabad, Jan 24: After pictorial warning on tobacco products, there will soon be restrictions on TV commercials promoting unhealthy food stuff for children.

The World Health Organisation, which has successfully implemented pictorial warning on tobacco products, has now asked all its member-countries including India to impose restrictions on TV commercials that target young children with unhealthy food items.

The Indian Council of Medical Research has drafted certain recommendations on what not to eat to stay fit. Once these guidelines are finalised, restrictions will be imposed on TV commercials trying to sell unhealthy foods. Policy makers and health experts will meet in Geneva in September to discuss the impact of TV commercials on the eating habits of young children and the need to contain them.

While welcoming the WHO's recommendations, city health experts believe that TV advertising is responsible for a large share of the marketing of unhealthy foods. "Children throughout the world are exposed to marketing of foods high in fat, sugar or salt, which increases the potential of younger generations developing noncommunicable diseases during their lives. Systematic reviews of evidence show that advertisements influence children's food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns." Some of the food stuff shown on TV commercials are of low nutritional value.

According o ICMR expert group chairman Dr B Narasinga Rao, the body does not need much sodium. "Intakes of 1.1 grams to 3.3 grams of sodium or just 2.8 grams to 8.3 grams of common salt is considered to be safe and adequate for healthy adults". But the WHO has found that most of the food stuff advertised for children in TV commercials contain high fat, sugar and salt, and they are responsible for the spurt in non-communicable diseases.

"Non-communicable diseases or lifestyle diseases are caused by the diet we eat. They are also influenced by stress. Control of diet and eating of healthy food right from the childhood will reduce the risk of non-communicable ailments like cardiovascular diseases, cancers and diabetes," said senior cardiologist Dr Bharath Reddy.

The WHO recommendations come in the wake of reports that 4.3 crore children including 1.1 crore living in India, are obese or overweight. "The advertisements on the food and snacks are highly influential on children, and influence their food choices dramatically. Majority of the food that gets advertised doesn't comprise of good nutritional values," argues bariatric surgeon Dr Nandakishore Dukkipati.

Since in these advertisements, food is associated with a celebrity - film star, sports personality etc., and kids get influenced and tend to go for them, leading to overweight and obesity amongst them, Dr Nandakishore said adding that food advertisements also give subliminal suggestions making them prone to eat food high in calories leading to overweight.

Malay Tea or Bawachi: Psoralea fights skin ailments

By Syed Akbar
Psoralea carylifolia or Malay tea is a weed growing in asteland. Nevertheless, this weed has been in use in traditional systems of medicine for more than  two millennia. Ayurvedic doctors regard it as a blessed herb as far as skin diseases are concerned. There has been a
mention of Psoralea (Bawachi or Kusthanasi) in Susruta Samhita and
how it controls major skin problems like leprosy.
Ayurveda and Unani doctors prescribe Psoralea as an ointment for skin
diseases including psoriasis and leprosy. It is particularly prescribed for controlling leucoderma or white patches on the skin. Psoralea has also been found effective in skin inflammation, scabies and ringworm.
The fruit, seed and root of Psoralea are used, both externally and internally, in herbal systems of medicine world over. If applied externally it controls skin diseases, and when taken internally Psoralea kills intestinal works, promotes urine and sweat, controls premature ejaculation and bedwetting. It is also effective in controlling cough and curing impotency in men.
===========
Home remedies
------------------
Psoralea seed oil can be applied externally on the affected portion of the skin in case of psoriasis. It provides relief from the nagging problem.
Ayurveda and Unani doctors prescribe Psoralea seed oil for internal consumption in treatment of leprosy. The oil is pungent and generally not palatable, but the benefits it gives outweigh its bitterness.
Those suffering from leucoderma may mix Psoralea seed oil with butter and apply it externally to the affected portions of the skin. 
Ready-made Psoralea oil and powder are available in  leading herbal stores in the form of capsules and tablets for easy palatability. One may try them for problems like impotence, bed-wetting and premature
ejaculation.
For common skin ailments like scabies and ringworm, Psoralea seed oil mixed with butter is applied as a skin ointment.

Hyderabad theatre gets global focus

2011
By Syed Akbar
Hyderabad theatre is now under global focus. Backed by a hoary history of staging many of  the country's best theatrical plays, theatre in Hyderabad has finally attracted  international attention with world class theatre directors expressing interest in "theatre exchange" with this city of nobles.
Hyderabad has always been famous for its theatrical plays - satirical, serious,  mythology, fantasy, musicals, puppetry, mime, monologues, and those with a strong social  message. If its comedy never failed to tickle the funny bone, its social satirical left a  lasting impression on the minds of the audience. The famous Adrak ke panje by Bobban  Khan, which went on to create a world record, successfully spread the message of family 
planning through humour. The Surabhi group made a mark of its own on the mythological and social theatre.
Doyen of the Hyderabadi Urdu/Hindustani theatre Qadir Ali Baig gave a new direction to  the Hindustani/Urdu stage. Though the Hyderabadi Hindi and Telugu theatre continued to  play a dominant role, the Hindustani theatre fell on bad days. It is now back with a bang  after its revival five years ago by Mohammad Ali Baig, who founded the Qadir Ali Baig  Theatre Foundation. And now comes the much needed global recognition.
From free entry passes to tickets priced as high as Rs 5000, Hyderabad theatre has come a  long way. That the city's new generation of theatre lovers have welcomed the change can  be gauged from the fact that whenever a play is staged, long queues are witnessed outside  the venue. No wonder then, many international theatre directors want collaboration with  the city theatre.
Says Mohammad Ali Baig, "we have now got international collaborations with leading  European theatre heavyweights for different genre of theatre development in Hyderabad".  The international collaboration spreads across a variety of genre, from mime and puppet  theatre to circus theatre with UK’s world-famous Footsbarn Theatre, France’s Puppet  Theatre de Guignol. European stalwarts Ariane Mnouchkine, Peter Brook and Phillipe  Genty’s theatre companies in Paris will hold a series of workshops and exchange 
programmes for Hyderabad.
British director Paddy Hayter of the world-famous circus theatre company Footsbarn  Theatre and his American-actress wife, Frederica Hayter, will tour the city to conduct  exclusive workshops on techniques of circus and mime movements.
“Having brought in the vibrancy, now is the time to take city’s theatre to the next  level”, adds Mohammad Ali Baig.
Tracing the history of theatre, Prof Mohan Maharishi, former chairman and director of  National School of Drama, points out post-independence, our country produced stalwarts in  Indian theatre like Prithviraj Kapoor in Mumbai in the 1950s, E Alkazi in Delhi in the  1960s, Badal Sircar in Kolkatta and Qadir Ali Baig in Hyderabad in 1970s. "These towering  stalwarts were crowd-pullers. They introduced modern Indian and Western playwrights in  their adaptation for Indian audiences and carried the mantle of serious theatre on their 
shoulders in their respective regions”.
Telugu, Hindustani, Hindi and English theatres co-exist in the most friendliest of terms  in Hyderabad. Telugu theatre had the Surabhi group and Bhoomika performing to both rural and urban audiences. Late AR Krishna presented Telugu theatre in the modern format to the Hyderabadi audience. Late Prof Isaac Sequeria contributed his bit with English theatre group Dramatic Circle. The Qadir Ali Baig Theatre Foundation has been staging Hindustani and English plays with talent from Mumbai and other areas.
On the forefront of Hindi and English theatre are Sutradhar, Rangadhara, Dramatic Circle  of Hyderabad, Nishumbita, Udaan, Avartan, and Sifar. These groups have groomed the local  Hyderabadi talent for their plays and have successfully brought the Hyderabadi theatre  within the reach of the common man.
Commenting on the ever increasing craze among Hyderabadis for the theatre, Mumbai English  stage's senior actor Sharon Prabhakar says, "people shelling out Rs 5000 to see serious  theatre was a dream”. Nods theatre veteran Alyque Padamasee,  "of late, it is a privilege  performing in Hyderabad. A thousand plus audience to watch a non-bedroom-comedy is amazing”.
Hyderabad had in recent times witnessed the acclaimed performance of senior actors  including Naseeruddin Shah, Shabana Azmi, Anupam Kher, Mohan Agashe and Rohini Hattangady.
The Hyderabad theatre has also exploited the city's historical places to take people to  the bygone era of the city's rulers. A unique genre of ‘Heritage Theatre’ has now taken  birth in the city. The 250-year old Taramati Baradari came alive with the staging of the spectacle "Taramati - The Legend of an Artist". It was a journey to the regime of the Hyderabadi kings as the play presented atop the monument live horses, camels, siddi 
drummers and chorus dancers.

============================
Hyderabad theatre nurtures local talent
============================
Hyderabad theatre is unique in the sense that it nurtures the local talent along side with the established national and international actors. Theatre groups in the city have been promoting local artistes, right from identifying the local talent to imparting them with the best of training, and finally providing them the platform to exhibit the artiste in them.
City theatre groups like Sutradhar, Rangadhara, Dramatic Circles of Hyderabad, Nishumbita, Udaan, Avartan, Sifar, Surabhi and Bhoomika have been concentrating mainly on the local talent. The Qadir Ali Baig Theatre Foundation, on the other hand, has been bringing in national actors including Naseeruddin Shah, Anupam Kher and Shabana Azmi for its plays.
"We are a pure Hyderabadi theatre group in the sense that our group is Hyderabadi and our actors are Hyderabadi. All our talent is locally sourced and we fine tune them. Hyderabadi theatre has been vibrant all through its history, attracting the attention of theatre lovers far and wide," observes Vinay Varma, director of Sutradhar.
Scores of quality actors have been trained by city theatre groups and some of them are big names in the fields of acting, dubbing, production and direction, even for films and television.
"For us acting is not only a means to manifest one’s latent talent, but is also a tool in recreating one’s personality and to make good human beings out of individuals. All of us owe something to society. Our firm conviction is that one can become a better actor if he/she becomes a good human being," adds Vinay Varma elaborating how the Hyderabadi theatre has a human element in it.

Friday, 21 January 2011

Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever: CCHF has high mortality rate, is highly infectious

2011
By Syed Akbar
Hyderabad, Jan 20: City hospitals are ill-equipped to tackle cases of the highly infectious Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever if the disease breaks out here. Worse, most doctors are unaware of the clinical manifestation of CCHF and it is unlikely that they have had direct interaction with a CCHF patient.

"We studied about CCHF in one of our microbiology lessons. But I have never come across a CCHF patient in my career so far," confessed an expert in internal medicine attached to a corporate hospital.
Infectious diseases specialist Dr Suneetha Narreddy said since CCHF was not a common disease, it would be difficult for a doctor to diagnose it. "Doctors first look for common diseases and then go for uncommon diseases. But chances are that no doctor here will look for CCHF since it has not been reported here earlier," she said. CCHF, the first cases of which have just been diagnosed in India, spreads fast through body fluids from person to person. Its transmission from animal to humans is through tick bites.
It is such a dangerous disease that the National Institute of Virology has warned that any serum samples from an infected person should be sent through a three-level isolation box to NIV, Pune, for confirmatory diagnostic tests.
CCHF was first diagnosed in 1944 in the Ukraine.
Though it has been causing havoc regularly in different parts of the world, it was not reported in India till recently. Early this month, the disease was diagnosed in Ahmedabad and so far it has caused the death of three people.

Given its highly infectious nature and the regular movement of large numbers of people between Gujarat and AP, doctors and health experts fear that any outbreak of CCHF in Hyderabad will precipitate a medical emergency. Most hospitals do not have special isolation wards fulfilling the WHO standards for Congo fever patients.
Senior physician, Dr Aftab Ahmed, said, "Since it is a viral disease, antibiotics do not work and the treatment has to be supportive. What matters is early diagnosis of the disease. It has one of the highest mortality rates with 40 per cent of patients succumbing to it."
Doctors at the government-owned Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases (Fever Hospital) also admit that they do not have a WHO-standard isolation ward to deal with Congo fever cases.
According to the National Institute of Virology, an individual is said to be suffering from CCHF if he manifests an acute febrile (fever) illness, with bleeding/haemorrhagic manifestations or acute unexplained death, plus at least one of the following: (a) tick bite in the previous three weeks (b) contact with livestock in the previous three weeks and or (c) direct physical contact, or contact with body fluids, of someone with a similar illness in the previous three wee

Wednesday, 19 January 2011

Ferula foetida, hing or devil's dung: Asafoetida prevents hysteria attacks

By Syed Akbar

Ferula foetida or hing has been a part of Indian cuisine since times immemorial. It is used in a variety of curries and achaars to enhance the taste and nutritive value of the food stuff. Apart from its culinary benefits Ferula finds its use in a number of traditional systems of medicine the world over. Even modern medicine recognizes its great herbal value in reducing flatulence by sending out excess gas formed in the digestive track.

The resin or gum obtained from Ferula foetida is used by herbalists for stomach troubles including spasms. More importantly, it is recognized for its unique property to keep off hysteria attacks and curing impotency in men and sterility in women. Hing is also prescribed for respiratory health issues including asthma, whooping cough, nasal discharge and common cold.

Hing is obtained from Ferula foetida as well as Ferula asafoetida. It has a unique smell (alliaceous or garlic like odour) which does not go well with many people, and thus it is also called “Devil’s dung”. In fact, the Latin name asafoetida means bad smelling gum (asa, gum; foetida, ill smelling). Its pungent odour notwithstanding, Ferula is a wonder herb full of health benefits. It expels mucous from the respiratory track (expectorant), clears the bowels in case of constipation (laxative), provides relief from intestinal flatulence (through enema), stimulates the nerves (nervine stimulant) and acts as sedative for patients of hysteria.

Home remedies
------------------

If you are suffering from flatulence and heavy gas trouble, a little quantity of Ferula gum twice a day will provide relief from the problem. If the trouble persists Ferula enema is prescribed by herbalists. Modern doctors do not, however, favour enema.

In case of whooping cough, take three cm of Ferula gum and mix it with honey. Consume the mixture at least two times a day for a week.

For patients of hysteria vapours from Ferula gum will help bring them to normalcy. If you perceive an imminent hysteria attack, give the patient Ferula gum vapours. It prevents the attack.

Consuming a little quantity of Ferula resin will provide relief from toothache and gum troubles.

Unani and Ayurveda doctors prescribe Ferula for sterility in women and impotency in men. In both the cases, consuming a little quantity of Ferula gum mixed with honey three times a day will enhance the fertility levels.

Sankranti: The vanishing tribes of Haridas, Gangireddu

By Syed Akbar
Hyderabad: Haridas, Gangireddu, cock and bull fights, and rangoli. They have been the symbols of Sankranti, the festival of harvest, for hundreds of years. These traditional festive symbols are now conspicuous by their absence, robbing Sankranti of its original glory, grandeur and cultural heritage.
If modernity and fast-paced life have taken a heavy toll of Haridas, Gangireddu and  rangoli in towns and cities, strict animal laws have put an end to traditional cock and bull fights. They now remain just the 
remnants of  Sankranti. High inflation and unchecked price rise have forced many families to forgo delicious food  preparations traditionally associated with the festival of harvest.
Old timers recall how the streets in villages, towns and cities reverberated with the  devotional hymns and bhajans of Haridas and how children watched in awe and amusement heavily built Gangireddu humbly 
dancing to the diktats of his master. Colourful rangoli used to welcome visitors outside every house.
Haridas and Gangireddu are now limited to just a few pockets in the State and the  tradition is fast dying with the new generation in the traditional families diverting to new and more lucrative profession. 
"The concept of Haridas was born to tell people about the rich and varied culture and heritage of the country. Most  of the narration by them centred around epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata. It was in simple language and  everyone was attracted to the hymn," recalled senior arts teacher S Srinivas Rao.
While cock fight was popular everywhere in the State, bull fight or Jallikattu was held  in areas bordering Tamil Nadu, where it was quite common in earlier days. This practice of fighting with the bull  was seen mainly in a few villages of Chittoor district.
Rangampeta, 20 kms from Tirupati, as well as at mandal headquarters town, Pakala in  Chittoor district, were popular for the bull game organised on Kanumu, the concluding day of the three-day harvest  festival. Courageous men try to tame the disoriented bulls, running in the midst of huge congregation of people, by 
holding on to them as long as possible.
The State government has banned the "cattle festival" due to fatalities involved in the  game. Still it is observed in a couple of villages, albeit clandestinely, away from the police glare.
"Gone are the days where children in villages used to run after decorated bull being 
taken by a man seeking alms, and also the Haridas, who used to roam about praising Lord Hari," regrets noted poet  Sannidanam Narasimha Sarma.
Deploring the change of trend among people, Sarma observes, "our women are synonymous  with our culture. But young women of late feel shy of singing traditional songs and decorating house front  yards with rangoli. The culture and traditions need to be taught by parents to their children. But young parents in  pursuit of money fail to teach their children. What is now left is no tradition, but vulgar display of wealth and pomp".
The government ban on cock fight notwithstanding, a few interior villages still witness  this age-old practice. A cock- fight organiser, G Murali, says  "we expect a large number of people this time too. The  stakes are quite high, as also the risk of being caught by the police".
West Godavari superintendent of police C Ravi Varma said the police are keeping a close  watch and any illegal activity will be curbed with an iron hand. "We will not spare anyone how big they are,"  he warned.
Experts fear that more than 90 per cent of Haridas mendicants have quit the profession.  Several thousand families used to eke out a living through singing devotional hymns. Gangireddu owners called  Basavannas used to make a lot of money as everyone donated them either in kind or cash.
Nuzvidu town in Krishna district was famous for its cock fights. Former rulers of this  area encouraged cockfights.
B Jayaprakash of Krishnaveni creations, a literary and cultural association, feels sorry  that people are no longer encouraging traditions. "Artistes still love to perform folk songs, folklore and  traditional dances but people do not want to encourage them. Lack of encouragement is one of the factors for the disappearance 
of traditions".
In many places Sankranti used to celebrated with palmyrah leaves decorated all around the  house. Farmers used to make newly harvested paddy and leaves of palm tree available to people in urban areas. Even though they are sold for a  price, they used to be available on a large scale. Paddy is necessary for distribution to the poor and palm  leaves for bonfire on Bhogi day.
"Now procuring these items is a difficult task especially palmyra leaves," astrologer Y  Karthikeya Sarma said. The other difficulty urbanites face is preparation of traditional dishes like arisalu,  synonymous with Sankranti.
Dasaradharama Murthy of Nellore agrees that festival atmosphere is missing this time because Haridas and Gangireddu have played a vanishing trick. 
In Telangana Sankranti is marked by the celebration of "Kari". Sankranthi is third  important festival in the Telangana region as the locals prefers Dasara (Vijayadashami) and Deepavali. The temple town of  Inavolu in Wardhanapet in Warangal district comes alive with people making their offerings to Sri Mallikarjuna 
Swamy.
Every year farmers from nearby villages like Ontimamidipally, Singaram, Udalhagudem,  Lingamarigudem, Ponnulu and Inavolu decorate their bullock carts and tractors with mango leaves and coloured  festoons before they arrive in the temple town to take round of the ancient temple in gratitude of the residing deity 
for the harvest.
The ‘Mallana Jatara’, as it is popularly known here, on Sankranti eve, the fair remains  the most preferred spot for devotees to visit in Warangal. Common sights here on this day would be of women carrying ‘bonam’ on their heads, married  women desiring children offering prayers touching the wall of the temple and thousands of people making  an overnight stay at the 100 acre temple site.

ICMR guidelines on obesity control: After US, India follows suit to make its people slim and healthy

By Syed Akbar

Oven hot pizzas, crispy French fries, spicy hot dogs, and yummy burgers may go off your 
daily menu if the
Indian Council of Medical Research has its way. Concerned over high rate of obesity among 
Indians,
particularly children and young adults, ICMR plans to come out with new dietary 
guidelines, which will tell
you to avoid fast or junk food.

Obesity and overweight are often blamed on junk food that includes pizzas, French fries, 
burgers,
sandwiches, curry puffs, aloo samosas, potato chips and cream-filled pastry. And ICMR, 
which comes out
with dietary and nutrition recommendations at regular intervals, now plans to suggest 
that Indians stay away
from the junk food if they want to stay fit and healthy. The ICMR's move follows the US 
government's
decision last month to revise nutrition standards for food items sold for schoolchildren.

But pizza lovers need not lose their heart. Fast food companies plan to fine-tune their 
products to meet the
nutritional and dietary requirements of ICMR. Your favourite pizza and burger will now 
come loaded with
less calories and low cholesterol content. They will satiate your taste buds even while 
working light on the
stomach, if fast food companies are to be believed.

"All the time we innovate and experiment with our products. When ICMR comes out with the 
new
guidelines, we will definitely bring out sandwiches and other foodstuff that are healthy, 
tasty, less fattening
and appealing to all children and youngsters," promises a spokesperson of Subway from 
Chennai.

Other fast food companies like Domino's too plan to fine-tune their menu to meet ICMR 
standards to fight
obesity. "We are open to changes and innovation," said a representative of corporate 
communications of
Domino's, Noida.

While it takes time for fast food companies to innovate and adjust their menu, official 
statistics present a
grim picture of the health of Indian children, particularly those living in urban areas. 
One in eight children
in the country is overweight. Almost one-third of the children in the country will become 
obese if their diet
is not fine-tuned immediately.

According to Dr VM Katoch, ICMR director-general, the new guidelines on obesity control 
will include
recommendation that will bring behavioural change in the eating habits. Already the 
city-based National
Institute of Nutrition, an ICMR constituent body, in its 14-point dietary guidelines 
suggest that people
should avoid over-eating to prevent over-weight and obesity.

"Proper physical activity is essential to maintain desirable body weight. Processed and 
ready-to-eat foods
should be used judiciously. Sugar should be used sparingly. And salt should be used in 
minimum quantity,"
the NIN guidelines point out.

The obesity levels in the present generation are so high that health researchers looking 
at the dietary habits
and lifestyle changes have come to conclusion that the present generation will be the 
first in human history
with a shorter life expectancy than their parents, observes nutrition consultant Dr 
Suneetha Sapur.

"The main fear is child and adolescent obesity, which has now reached epidemic 
proportions in all
industrial countries and is fast catching in our country ," she adds.

Ergonomics and obesity expert Prof Dr S Bakthtiar Choudhary agrees. "junk food is devoid 
of minerals,
fibre and have many preservatives. Besides junk food, eating in front of TV is the other 
main reason for
obesity".

The new final draft recommendations of the ICMR on the total calorie intake for Indians 
fix 910 for boys
between one and two years; 2030 for children between 10 and 11 years; and 3060 for boys 
between 17 and
18 years. In case of girls, the calorie intake is 830, 1740 and 2450 respectively.

Men who lead a sedentary life need take 2320 calories per day, those with moderate work 
2730 and those
involved in heavy work 3490 calories. The corresponding figures for women are 1900, 2230 
and 2550
calories.

=============================================================================

Following are the healthy weights and heights of a reference person in India:

Reference infant of India:
0 to 6 months: 5.4 kgs
6 to 12 months: 8.4 kgs

Reference child of India:

1 to 3 years: 12.9 kgs
4 to 6 years: 18 kgs
7 to 9 years: 25.1 kgs

Reference boy of India:

10 to 12 years: 34.3 kgs
13 to 15 years: 47.6 kgs
16 to 17 years: 55.4 kgs

Reference girl of India:

10 to 12 years: 35 kgs
13 to 15 years: 46 kgs
16 to 17 years: 52.1 kgs

Adult reference person:

Man: 18 to 29 years: 60 kgs
Woman: 18 to 29: 55 kgs

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